海口朗阁>托福考试>雅思阅读同义替换考点解析

雅思阅读同义替换考点解析

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018-02-02 15:30:26.000
  • 编辑:朗阁海外考试研究中心

雅思阅读同义替换考点解析

雅思阅读考试在时间控制方面要求非常高,需要考生们在有限的时间内(1小时)将自己的正确率最大化;虽然和听力考试的题量和评分标准相同,但是阅读考试最后不再有10分钟誊抄答题纸的环节,如果去折算一下时间,理论上来说每道题需要控制在1.5分钟,其中包括了审题、关键词定位和确定答案,因此时间相当紧迫。 当然通过题干内容到原文中准确定位是所有考生必备的技能,但若能识别题干和原文用两种不同表达方式描述的同一事物(俗称“同义替换”),相信一定会事半功倍。下面就让我们来看一下雅思阅读同义词替换的六项基本原则。

1. 词性转换

Example C6T2 Q17&Q18

This is largely due to development in________17, but other factors such as improved ________18 may also be playing a part.

A cost B falling C technology D undernourished

E earlier F later G disabled H more

I increasing J nutrition K education L constant

M medicine N pollution O environmental P health

Q independent

原文:第四段

Clearly, certain diseases are beating a retreat in the face of medical advance. But there may be other contributing factors. Improvements in childhood nutrition in the first quarter of the twentieth century, for example, gave today’s elderly people a better start in life than their predecessors.

解析:根据题目中的but并列关系在文章中的重现,不能发现文章中but前即17题,but后即18题。表明有些疾病是被medical advance打败的,根据空格前的介词预判所填词性是名词,而方框内所出现的是medicine是medical的名词形式,恰好是形容词到名词的转换。而18题是一个被improved修饰的名词,原文中正好出现了improvement又是improved的名词形式,因此很方便确定该题的答案是childhood。

 

2. 同义词/近义词间的转换

Example C6T1 Q38&Q39

In recent years, many of them have been obliged to give up their ________38 lifestyle, but they continue to depend mainly on ________39 for their food and clothes

原文:D段

Over the past 40 years, most have abandoned their nomadic ways and settled in the territory’s 28 isolated communities, but they still rely heavily on nature to provide food and clothing.

解析:题目中的两个关键点in recent years(时间转变)和but(并列关系)可以帮助我们在原文中划分层次。通过空格前后判断38题填一个形容词修饰lifestyle,并且已经被give up了,文章中定位到了Over the past 40 years与In recent years对应,所以but前即是38题的内容。其中abandon对应give up,ways对应lifestyle, 因此way前面的形容词nomadic便是38题答案;39题的词性应该是depend on的对象(名词),原文中but后定位到了与题目相一致的food and clothing,rely on对应depend on,所以处在中间的名词nature即是答案。

 

3. 否定加反义词之间的转换

Example C8T2 Q38

Certain linguistic groups may have difficulty describing smell because they lack the appropriate ________38.

原文:D段

Smell, however, is a highly elusive phenomenon. Odors, unlike colors, for instance, cannot be named in many languages because the specific vocabulary simply doesn’t exist.

解析:通过空格前的lack可以判断,38题所填的词性是一个由appropriate修饰的名词。题目中的linguistic groups和difficulty可以帮助我们到原文中定位大方向,即对应了language和elusive,另外because的因果关系也在文章中重现,看之后的内容即可。其中lack一词在文中被替换成了doesn’t exist,是一个典型的“否定词+反义词”的形式,所以不存在(缺乏)的东西即前面的名词vocabulary。

 

4. 主动与被动间的转换

Example C8T4 Q24&Q26

Q24: Leaf-mining hispides blighted ________

Q26: Salvinia molesta plagues ________

A. forage grass B rice fields

B. C coconut trees D fruit trees

E water hyacinth F parthenium weed

G Brazilian beetles H grass-scale insects

I larval parasites

原文:最后一段

In the late 1960s, when Sri Lanka’s flourishing coconut groves were plagued by leaf-mining hispides, a larval parasite imported from Singapore brought the pest under control. (Q24)

By using Neochetina bruci, a beetle native to Brazil, scientists at Kerala Agricultural University freed a 12-kilometer-long canal from the clutches of the weed Salvinia molesta, popularly called “African Payal” in Kerala. About 30,000 hectares of rice fields in Kerala are infested by this weed.(Q26)

解析:这两题都属于完成句子结尾配对,即主语和谓语已知,要求根据文章内容补全宾语。两题题分别可以用Leaf-mining hispides和Salvinia molesta来定位方向;谓语动词blight和plague稍有难度,但不难理解前后是动作上的关系,原文中只要能和主语有动作关系的对象即是答案。显然,coconut groves和leaf-mining hispides存在动作上的关系were plagued,

题目和原文出现了主动转被动的关系,所以coconut groves即24题的答案。同样,文中指明了Salvinia molesta是一种weed,在后面的句子中不难发现rice fields和这种weed有动作上关系are infested, 又是一个主动转被动的例子,26题的答案是rice fields。

 

5. 总称与分类间的转换

Example C10T4 Q10

California has replaced a range of firefighting tools.

原文:第八段首句

States promises to provided more up-to-date engines, planes, and helicopters to fight fires have been fulfilled.

解析:这是一道判断题,定位词只有两个firefighting tools(大方向)和replaced(小范围)。题干中的tools这个总称在文章中被替换成了engines, planes和helicopters这些分类,动词replace(取代)被替换成了up-to-date(更新的),因此这题的答案选TRUE。

Example C7T1 Q1

examples of wildlife other than bats which do not rely on vision to navigate by

原文:B段

Bats are not the only creatures to face this difficulty today. Obviously the night-flying insects that they prey on must find their way about somehow. Deep-sea fish and whales have little or no light by day or by night. Fish and dolphins that lives in extremely muddy water cannot see because, although there is light, it is obstructed and scattered by the dirt in the water.

解析:这是一道段落细节配对题,通常建议大家放到最后完成,但题干中一个定位词wildlife(大方向)让我们很容易在B段中找到其分类信息:night-flying insects, deep-sea fish, whales和dolphins,基本可以确定题目内容对应该段;另一个定位词do not rely on vision(小范围)也出现在这些动物所在的句子中little or no light, cannot see等,所以答案选B段。

 

6. 单词与句子间的转换

Example C10T4 Q7

The amount of open space in California has diminished over the last ten years.

原文:第六段

In California, where population growth has averaged more than 600,000 a year for at least a decade, more residential housing is being built. “What once was open space is now residential homes providing fuel to make fires burn with greater intensity,”......

解析:这是一道判断题。通过题干上的两个大方向open space和last ten years确定文章句子所在的位置,diminished作为小范围(考点词)很容易在文中被替换。原文中并没有diminished同义词或反义词,所以很容易误判是NOT GIVEN。该题需要考生针对文中的open space所在的句子进行简单理解。句子中提到了now和residential homes,就表明了现在空地已成为了居民区,和题干中的diminished相符合,因此选TRUTH。

 

上述内容是雅思阅读考试中的六种常见的同义词考点。在阅读备考的过程中,利用真题进行同义词和反义词的积累拓展应作为当务之急,其实还是回到了英语的基本功-----词汇。总之,即使凭借再多的技巧或套路,缺少了词汇这块奠基石,一切都是徒劳,或者无奈地依靠前后文来猜,只会耗费更多时间,所以词汇与技巧相辅相成,才会让答题更准确高效。

  • 分享:

填写以下表单,免费领取
雅思、托福、SAT备考资料。

  • 立即领取

[关闭]    

领取说明:请先手机领取提取密码,然后点击到云盘下载。

*我们为您提供免费的课程咨询,并且非常尊重您的个人隐私,所有个人信息将严密保管。

下载地址: