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托福综合口语Task 6满分攻略

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018-01-22 14:42:51.000
  • 编辑:朗阁海外考试研究中心崔明媛

托福综合口语Task 6满分攻略

 

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心崔明媛

 

新托福口语第六题Task6向来是让考生们感到头疼的一项任务。它的话题范围广、话题难度深、材料时间长、说话者语速快等这一系列因素,都是考生在第六题拿高分道路上的拦路虎。当然,我们考生自身欠缺的一些能力也是导致在第六题难拿高分的一大因素。许多考生可以在Academic Course Content这一部分,也就是Task4和Task6两道题拿到”Fair”这一等级,也就是说原始分值为2.5-3分之间,转换到最终分数大概是19-23之间。但是这个分数对许多考生来说远远不够,甚至过低。如果你的目标是100+, 105+, 甚至是110+, 那么你的目标应该是在这一部分拿到”od”这一等级,也就是原始分值3.5-4, 换算分值27-30分。所以今天,朗阁海外考试研究中心口语组的老师就为大家来一一剖析第六题难拿高分的具体原因,以及针对各个原因给考生们奉献最直接、最有效、最简单的满分攻略。

 

首先,让我们来看一看导致考生在Task6难拿高分的三大原因:

Ø  教授讲课重点模糊

Ø  考生话题词汇不足

Ø  考生细节记录不足

 

下面我们来逐一分析一下这三个原因。

 

原因一教授讲课重点模糊

大部分的听力材料中,教授讲课的顺序都是比较固定且有较明确的思路顺序的,也就是一个主题+两个要点+要点解释及举例。而且,教授在讲课时会运用一些连接词帮助我们定位和记录要点。但是,一旦教授的讲课不再按照我们已经形成的固有思维来展开,那么考生多半会慌乱且手足无措。

 

我们先来看一下有明确讲课重点和讲课重点模糊的两段材料的对比:

TPO14

A lot of plants and animals live near the surface of the ocean, and that means there’s a lot of food near the surface, because there are lots of plants and animals to eat. But if you down to the deepest parts of the ocean, it’s cold and dark, and there’s not a lot of living down there, so food is very scarce. So organisms that live down at these great depths have developed special adaptations to help them survive in this environment where food is so hard to find.

 

For example,many deep-sea organisms have body features that enable them to eat prey that are larger than themselves. A od example, um, there’s a species of eel that has an enormous mouth and a large stomach that’s capable of expanding. And these unusual features allow this eel to eat prey larger than itself. That’s a big advantage because if the eel eats something big, that’s a lot of food, a lot of nutrition. So the eel can for quite a while before it has to find food again.

 

Another helpful adaptationin some deep-sea organisms is the ability to generate light. And some organisms use that light to help them capture food. For example, there’s a kind of fish called the angler fish. And on its head, this fish has a little structure that produces light that glows in the dark. This little structure, this little light, is positioned close to the fish’s mouth. Other fish are attracted to this light, they think it’s something small they can eat, so they swim straight toward it. And that brings them close enough for the angler fish to capture them and eat them.

 

很明显,本段材料遵循典型的教授讲课套路,即一个主旨“organisms that live down at these great depths have developed special adaptations to help them survive”,两个points分别是:“many deep-sea organisms have body features that enable them to eat prey that are larger than themselves”和“the ability to generate light”, 而且非常明显的是两个要点分别用了连接词“For example”和“Another helpful adaptation”来帮助考生定位。再继续往下听,我们又听到了表示举例的连接词“A od example”和“For example”, 这就更明确地告诉我们两个例子要出现了,提醒考生们仔细听、注意记录。所以这样的听力材料是非常好定位,能够让考生清晰地get到重点的。

 

我们再来看一段没有明确讲课重点的材料。

TPO17

Now let’s talk about a particular cultural process: diffusion. Since the beginning of human history, diverse cultures have taken advantage of one another’s innovations when they’ve come into contact. Diffusion is the process whereby something cultural…like a custom, a type of food or an invention is spread from one group to another, or from one society to another. One group adopts a cultural item, or, more selectively, just part of a cultural item of another group, you see?

 

Now diffusion can occur through a variety of ways: military conquest or tourism or even something like the influence of satellite TV shows around the world. For example, take something like reading a modern newspaper here in the US. Have you ever thought about where the letters, the characters on the page you’re reading, where they came from? They were borrowed from another culture many centuries a. Then, the printing of the words, well, that process was invented in Germany, and finally, the paper itself, the paper was invented in China. These innovations from all over the world were shared across cultures over time, and so today we have newspapers in the US. So the process of diffusion might take place over long distances and over long periods of time.

 

Now I’m not saying that diffusion happens easily, as I mentioned, sometimes it’s selective. For instance, many people in the US have accepted the practice of acupuncture. The Chinese practice of using needles to cure disease or relieve pain. So, lots of people in the US have realized that acupuncture is effective, but few of them fully understand or have committed themselves to the philosophy behind acupuncture. Cultures tend to resist ideas that seem to foreign, too different from their own beliefs and values. But the ideas which aren’t perceived as too different are often incorporated, absorbed, diffused into their culture, so the practice of acupuncture has been absorbed into US culture, but not the philosophies of Chinese medicine.

 

本段材料我们是以文字形式呈现的,且已经给大家分了段,所以看起来结构上比较清晰。但是,试想一下,如果我们盲听这段材料,其实重点是非常模糊的。因为材料一开始教授就说我们来讨论一下特殊的文化过程—diffusion(传播)。但是听了半天,我们只听到了什么是diffusion。根据以往的经验,我们期待着教授能指出本次讲课的重点,也一直在猜测着,是要讲文化传播的两种途径?还是文化传播的两种影响?还是文化传播的两种特征?总之,教授并没有明确说明。所以,我们只能硬着头皮往下听。教授说,文化传播可以通过很多种方法,比如战争、旅游、卫星电视。再往下教授居然直接举了例子!许多同学听到这里内心应该是崩溃的,教授开始举例子这件事说明我们前面既错过了主题,也错过了第一个要点。如果考生还在期待着听到明确的重点,那么很遗憾,你已经错过了两个得分点了。

 

所以,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师在这里诚心建议大家:

攻略一:牢记信号词、重点都不落

何为信号词?并不是单纯的表示列举和增补关系的连接词,比如first, second, another, also等。而是表示教授将要讲出重点的一些语助词或标记语,比如OK, Now, Well等。这些词被称为Discourse Marker(语篇标语),让我们先来看看关于它的定义吧---A discourse marker is something that either connects a sentence to what comes before or after, or indicates a speaker's attitude to what he is saying. Now discourse markers are assigned functions in different levels of analysis: topic changes, reformulations, discourse planning, stressing,hedging, or backchanneling. 大家看到,语篇标语的功能是多样的,其中两条—topic changes(话题转换)和stressing(强调)是听力材料中最频繁出现的。也就是说,当我们听到材料中有OK, Now, Well, Then, All right, You know, I mean, Actually, Basically, So等,就需要提高警惕,因为讲课重点要出现了。

 

所以我们再回顾一下刚才的材料,在教授讲完什么是diffusion之后,教授先说了“Now”,后来讲完第一个例子,又有一个“So”做了关于第一个例子的总结。之后呢,教授又说了“Now”。这都是在提醒我们,重点来了,需要记录了。所以我们现在再来看这篇材料的内容就很好懂了。教授讲了关于diffusion的两个知识,一个是可以通过很多种方法传播,一个是传播的过程有时是有选择性的。教授分别用了报纸上的文字和纸张本身,以及针灸,这两个例子来分别解释了两个要点。所以,将来在听的过程中,不仅要对连接词敏感,还要牢记上面补充的语篇标语,只要听到这些信号词,就抓紧记下后面的内容,以免错过要点,错失分数。

 

原因二:考生话题词汇不足

话题词汇不足,这是大部分考生的弱点。托福考试的话题范围广,有深度,虽然考试不要求我们具备相关的背景知识,但是具备相关的背景知识能很大程度上帮助我们理解听力内容。那么,如果不具备背景知识,我们只能把所有赌注都压在词汇量上了。这确实是一个不争的事实。但是往往考生们来不及背那么多话题词汇,就算背了很多,也不一定背得全、记得牢。毕竟话题广就意味着只背高频词是涵盖不了所有话题需要的词汇的,所以我们常常听得懵懵懂懂,真正意思全靠猜。比如我们来看下面两则材料:

TPO30 (part)

When we humans walk from place to place, we move on the Earth’s surface, across the Earth’s surface. Many animals of course do the same thing. Horses and dogs and cows and so on, all move on the surface, across the surface of the Earth. There are also, there are quite a few animals that have the ability to move from place to place underground, beneath the Earth’s surface. This moving around underground is called subsurface locomotion. Subsurface locomotion has a number of benefits.

 

TPO10 (part)

OK, we generally assume that babies can feel only very basic emotions like happiness or anger, that is, the babies just react to things that happen directly to them. However, some new research’s suggesting that babies may be able to feel concern for others, to have empathy for others.

Now, empathy is a complex emotion. It involves a baby relating to someone else’s emotions, not just reacting to things happening directly to them. Let’s talk about an experiment that may show that babies could be capable of feeling empathy.

 

关于第一则材料,我们能很明确的知道主题是“Subsurface locomotion has a number of benefits”。但是重点在于,subsurface locomotion的意思是很多考生不知道的。Subsurface这个词有个sub, 我们能知道是在…下面,surface是表面,所以应该能猜到是在…之下的意思。关键在于locomotion这个词,很多考生会猜与local这个词有关,但事实是两词之间并无关联。所以单纯靠猜是行不通的。

 

第二段材料中,我们通过判断,得知“However, some new researches suggest that babies may be able to feel concern for others, to have empathy for others.”意思是想证明婴儿可以对别人有concern和empathy。大部分考生都知道concern的意思,却不知道empathy的意思。而后面的材料则对empathy进行了一番讨论,说明empathy的重要性,所以我们必须要搞懂这个关键词的意思。那么我们能如何快速解决生词的困扰呢?

 

攻略二:转述必须听得好,生词理解没烦恼

转述(Paraphrase),是指将一个词转换成另一种方式表达出来。托福考试中的转述常见的形式包括同义替换和释义两种。同义替换,是用一个同义词或同义短语把一个词或短语替换出来,结构简单,容易理解。释义,是用一句话或几句话把一个词或短语解释出来。这两种方法都是新托福口语综合题目的Task4和Task6常用的技巧。我们在材料中看到或听到不认识的词时,完全可以通过这个词附近的同义词或解释来帮助理解。

 

比如,我们刚刚在第一个材料中看到了subsurface locomotion, 而这个词的前面就正好用了释义这个方法把这个词的意思解释的非常清楚。“…quite a few animals that have the ability to move from place to place underground, beneath the Earth’s surface. This moving around underground is called subsurface locomotion.”意思是说,有些动物可以在地下移动,而在地下移动这件事就叫做subsurface locomotion。再比如,第二则材料就很好地运用了同义替换和释义两种方法。首先教授说了婴儿会对别人有concern, 这个词很简单,就是关心、担心的意思,可以同义替换给empathy。如果不放心,我们继续往下看。教授说“It involves a baby relating to someone else’s emotions, not just reacting to things happening directly to them.”意思是说empathy是婴儿可以关心到别人的情绪。通过这句话,再联系concern的意思,我们就很容易理解本题的主旨了。所以记住,遇到生词不用怕,与主旨相关的重要的生词教授都会做出解释。去仔细听这个生词前后的同义词,或是听懂对这个词的释义,都能很好地帮我们理解,打破生词的障碍。

 

原因三:考生细节记录不足

很多人在记录第六题的听力内容时,只关注整段材料的主体框架,即一个主旨,两个要点,和两个例子。他们往往忽略一些细节,这些细节包括对于两个要点的解释,对于例子的解释,还包括有时教授讲述的实验过程中的细节。下面我们通过两个例子来看看我们考生常忽略的一些细节。

 

TPO33

OK, so last time we were talking about the processes of starting up a business on your own. And how new business owners often encounter a lot of obstacles. But one way to get an easier start is through franchising. That's when there's already a well-known, established company and you open up a new branch of that company in a new location. Your new business will be a part of the larger established company with the same name and it'll be run just like the other branches of that company. Let's discuss some advantages of franchising. (topic)

 

Now, one great advantage of franchising is that the company provides training to you and all of your employees (point 1).They teach you about all the aspects of the business and you're given a plan to follow for success (detail). So, you don't have to do the training yourself or come up with your own business plan. For example, if you're opening up a new division of a restaurant that sells pizza, say. Somebody from the company will come to the restaurant that you're opening and they'll train you and your employees in how to prepare the pizzas, how to take food orders, plus everything about how to operate the restaurant so it'll be run exactly like all the other restaurants in the company (detail).

 

Another advantage of franchising is the established customer base (point 2) because your business will have the same name as the company that's already well-known. It'll already have loyal customers’ following. So when you open a new division, people will want to come because they'll be confident of its quality (detail). So, again, let's say you're opening a new restaurant, a pizza place. The restaurant is already well-known because it has such od pizza. So when you open your own restaurant with the same name in a new location, people know your pizza's ing to be really od, too. They'll to your restaurant because they already trust they'll have a od experience there (detail).

 

首先我们把材料中的主体框架用红色字体加下划线标示出来了,这也是大部分同学能够听得出来并记录下来的。我们来梳理一下这些要点:

Topic: advantages of franchising

Point 1: the company provides training to you and all of your employees

Example: if you open a new division selling pizza, somebody from the company will come and train you and your employees.

Point 2: the established customer base

Example: The restaurant is already well-known because it has such od pizza. When you open your own restaurant with the same name in a new location, people know your pizza's ing to be really od, too.

 

如果你能够掌握这些主要信息点,那么你的整体分数大概在原始分值3分左右。但是我们追求的是高分,甚至满分。所以仅仅靠复述这些要点,是远远不够的。那么我们应该如何做呢?

 

这个时候我们就需要牢记:

攻略三:细节听得全,高分不再远

考生们需要意识到的一点是,复述第六题并不能只靠要点拿分。我们不要忘了第六题的问题--Using the professor’s example of the pizza restaurant, explain two advantages of franchising. 所有的第六题基本上都是要求我们利用要点和细节来解释教授讲课的主题。所谓“解释”,是指分析说明事物的含义、意义、事物变化的原因、事物之间的联系等等。意思就是说,当我们需要解释two advantages of franchising的时候,需要分析说明它本身的含义;需要用例子来分析证明franchising的优点,两者之间的关系;需要让听者听你在复述的时候详细了解到底这两个优点是什么。所以,我们不仅需要把教授所讲的要点记下来,同时也要把对每个要点的解释,以及对例子的细节记下来,这样才能更有效地解释清楚主旨。

 

所以,上述听力材料中标蓝色的字体部分就是本题中大家需要记下来的细节。我们来仔细分析一下。首先第一个优点是“公司会给你和你的员工培训”,但是并没有说明培训的内容,所以我们必须记下来公司培训的内容是“所有与这个生意有关的方面”。这是非常重要的,因为教授在拿pizza店举例的时候说了公司来的人会给你培训的内容有“怎样做披萨,怎样点单,怎样做所有的事情从而让你的店看起来跟公司所有的店都一样。”这两个细节是相辅相成的,两者详细恰当地解释了关于公司提供培训这项优点。其次,第二个优点是“已有的顾客基础”。只记这一点的话我们并不能让人清楚地知道为什么会有顾客基础的原因。所以我们需要解释出来,“你的店名将会与公司的店名一样,所以顾客会来。而且他们来还有一个原因是他们对产品比较放心”。这就对应了例子中,教授说“顾客知道你的披萨会很好是因为他们之前在别的店有过很好的经验了”。这样我们才能精确地把这个主旨解释地非常清楚。

 

除了常规的解释一个点,第六题还会通过教授讲的一个完整的实验来证明一个理论或发现。而在复述实验的时候,很大一部分考生不知道到底哪些要记哪些不用。所以我们再通过一个例子来看看如何记录实验的细节。

TPO10

OK, we generally assume that babies can feel only very basic emotions like happiness or anger, that is, the babies just react to things that happen directly to them. However, some new research’s suggesting that babies may be able to feel concern for others, to have empathy for others.

 

Now, empathy is a complex emotion. It involves a baby relating to someone else’s emotions, not just reacting to things happening directly to them. Let’s talk about an experiment that may show that babies could be capable of feeling empathy.

 

OK, for thefirst part of the experiment, well, um, we’ve always known that babies start to cry when they hear other babies crying, right? One baby in a room starts crying and all the rest join in. We’ve always assumed that the other babies cry because they were reacting to the noise of crying, that the noise itself was distressing. So, in the experiment researchers play tape recording, a tape of baby’s crying, to another baby. And sure enough, the baby started crying when he heard the sound of other baby’s crying. This was no surprise, of course. And the researchers assumed that the baby cried because of the noise.

 

But the next part of the experiment was surprising. The researchers played the baby a tape of his own crying. Now it was just as noisy, so the researchers expected him to cry. However, this time the baby did not cry.He wasn’t upset by the sound of his own crying. Why not? Well, maybe it wasn’t the noise that made him cry before when he heard other baby’s crying.

 

In fact, maybe noise has nothing to do with it. It could be that the baby felt empathy for the other babies. And that was why he t upset when he heard them crying. Researchers concluded that it is indeed possible that babies feel empathy, concern for others.

 

前面提到过,这个题目的主旨是教授要证明一个新发现--babies may be able to feel concern for others, to have empathy for others。意思是婴儿可以对别人关心,可以与别人共感。好,重点在下面。我们说,如果教授讲的是一个实验,那我们需要知道的是,对于一个实验的表述通常遵循如下结构:

1)     实验目的

2)     实验对象

3)     实验第一步—实验结果—对所得结果的原因猜测

4)     实验第二步(对照)—实验结果—结果分析

也就是说,我们所需要记录的内容也必须按照这个结构记录,并且把每一步的具体内容记下来。所以,我们在这个题目里所需要记录的就是:

1)     实验目的:an experiment that may show that babies could be capable of feeling empathy

2)     实验对象:babies

3)     实验第一步:researchers play tape recording, a tape of baby’s crying, to another baby.

实验结果:the baby started crying when he heard the sound of other baby’s crying.

原因猜测:researchers assumed that the baby cried because of the noise.

4)     实验第二步:the researchers played the baby a tape of his own crying.

实验结果:this time the baby did not cry.

结果分析:in fact, maybe noise has nothing to do with it.It could be that the baby felt empathy for the other babies.

 

考生们注意,一般来说,教授会清楚地使用连接词来提醒我们他讲课的进度。比如,本题中,教授说“OK, for thefirst part of the experiment”, “But the next part of the experiment was surprising”, 很明显,这些语句都是能帮助我们“on track”的辅助工具。所以,接下来我们按照刚刚讲到的顺序,就能完整详细地把要点和细节都记下来了。

 

总的来说,我们第六题拿分不难,难的是如何拿高分。因为并不是所有题都按照常理出牌,也不是所有的话题词汇都能提前准备到,所以我们必须提前接触各类题目,不断磨砺自己的能力,按照老师讲的技巧去练习,持之以恒。相信在不断的坚持之下,考生们定能攻破弱点,夺取高分!

 

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